Why Are Mitochondria Called The Powerhouse Of The Cell

November 5, 2022 0 Comments

Why Are Mitochondria Called The Powerhouse Of The Cell – They perform oxidative phosphorylation for energy production and the ability to synthesize lipids, amino acids, and heme groups. Mitochondria can multiply; they have their own DNA for their own genes. -Major changes to shpe through merges and splits.

2 General appearance Organelles are 2 to 6 μm long and 0.2 μm wide. It is about the same size as a bacterial cell. 1- A powerful resource for mobile operations. Through oxidative phosphorylation, they create ATP (energy storage form) molecules. 2- Through electron microscopy, mitochondria are divided into two types: the Cristae type and the tubular type.

Why Are Mitochondria Called The Powerhouse Of The Cell

Why Are Mitochondria Called The Powerhouse Of The Cell

The number increases in the liver and muscle tissues. A hepatocyte contains mitochondria. 4- Mitochondria are organelles of the body. They can grow and divide because they have a single DNA molecule.

Mitochondria Mitochondria Are The “power House” Of The Cells.

6- Juvenile-adult blindness. 7- Advanced muscle diseases. 8- Some causes of Alzheimer’s disease. 9-Diabetes of the second type. 10-Parkinson’s disease (PD) 11-Elderly people.

1. Smooth the outside of the sheet. 2. Inner box. Tissues form cysts and tubules. 3. Interstitial space (10 – 20 nm) 4. Matrix of the part surrounded by internal membranes (intercrystalline space).

It is smooth and is separated from the membrane by a central space. Contact points formed by living proteins between the inner and outer membranes serve as pathways for proteins and small molecules from the cytoplasm to the matrix.

It is characterized by the presence of many porins; a protein channel that receives ions and metabolites needed by mitochondria.

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1- Complex I, II, III, IV, V., which performs oxidative phosphorylation that produces ATP. These complexes I, II, III, IV are an oxygen chain. 2- There is also a V-complex (ATP-synthetase) that performs ATP synthesis. 3-Membrane internal pockets to form vesicles or tubes that increase the surface area of ​​ATP and oxygen chain formation. 4- The concentration of phospholipid is high enough that it is almost impermeable to ions, electrons and protons to separate the matrix from the intermembrane space.

12 ATP – Synthetase (Machine-V): Knob-like repeating units on the inner membrane that protrude from the inner membrane into the nucleus. They produce an enzyme complex that stores energy in the form of ATP molecules synthesized from ADP and pure phosphate.

The mitochondrial matrix is ​​filled with a thick fluid of fine granular material that can be seen under an electron microscope. 1- About 50% of the matrix content is protein; the enzyme responsible for: a) the breakdown of fatty acids and pyruvate into acetyl coenzyme A. b) the oxidation of acetyl coenzyme A in the Krebs cycle. c) Synthesis of mitochondrial ribosomes, tRNA and mRNA by DNA translation.

Why Are Mitochondria Called The Powerhouse Of The Cell

Mitochondrial DNA circle 16 in the matrix and enzymes are important for mitochondrial gene expression. 2- The mitochondrial matrix also contains strong mitochondrial stones, which are salts of calcium and magnesium.

Mitochondria Is The Powerhouse Of The Cell

Mitochondrial abnormalities: Mitochondrial DNA can become abnormal, which can disrupt mitochondrial and cellular functions, leading to conditions called mitochondrial cytopathy syndromes. Symptoms (severity varies from patient to patient) include muscle weakness, brain damage, and excess lactic acid.

19 1- Mitochondria need oxygen to produce aerobic oxygen, therefore aerobic respiration and the formation of ATP reserves during hypoxia. 2- During aerobic respiration, nutrients are converted into carbon dioxide and water. 3- Mitochondria store energy in the electrons of hydrogen molecules to bind phosphates in ATP molecules. 4- Sugar is oxidized; loses electrons, oxygen decreases and gains electrons.

1- Glycolysis Cytoplasmic process of anaerobic respiration Glucose is split into pyruvate with 2 molecules of ATP and one molecule of NADH. produces 2 ATP molecules for each glucose molecule.

Pyruvate enters the mitochondria and is converted to acetyl CoA + NADH + CO2. Coenzyme A participates in the Krebs cycle.

Pdf) Mitochondria: From Physiology To Pathology

In addition to all the necessary enzymes, the following are necessary for the control of the Kreb’s cycle: a. Pyruvate (electrolyte). b. NAD + and FAD + (energy source). C. Health (electron acceptor).

In the process of aerobic respiration, the remaining energy in the hydrogen atoms of the glucose molecule is removed to be used for the production of ATP. – NADH and FADH2 transport high-energy electrons into the electron transport chain and donate.

The catabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats results in glycolysis or the citric acid cycle in some areas. The process of oxidative phosphorylation can produce more than 2 x 1026 ATP molecules in our body every day. • The final products of catabolism are: NH3, H2O and CO2.

Why Are Mitochondria Called The Powerhouse Of The Cell

Q2-Why are mutations in mtDNA and not nuclear DNA? Q3-Which cells have mutant mitochondria? Question 4 – What causes Parkinson’s disease (PD) Question 5 – Does mtDNA variation cause people to age? Who is in charge?

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