When One Objects Distance From Another Is Changing
When One Objects Distance From Another Is Changing – A view dynamics. I. Motion A. Explaining Motion – Occurs when distance changes from one object to another.
Presentation on theme: “One-Dimensional Kinematics. I. Motion A. Definition of Motion – Occurs when distance changes from one object to another.”- Presentation Transcript:
When One Objects Distance From Another Is Changing
3 1. Reference Points Reference points (or frames) allow us to determine where something is in relation to other objects. For example, we can use a map to compare the locations of different cities or a globe to compare the locations of different continents. However, not every frame of reference is appropriate for every problem.
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4 2. Relative Motion When an object is in motion, its motion is described as seen from another object or reference point. Unless otherwise stated, we describe motion relative to the Earth’s surface – which we call rest
5 In this course, we will solve problems in one direction. Usually, we use the x-axis for that direction. +x usually goes to the right -x then goes to the left We can define it against, but if not specified, this is what we assume. We can also think of the direction of the compass in terms of positive and negative. For example, North is positive and South is negative. The position symbol is “x”. Ax +x- x
6 8 The following are examples of positive directions, except: A to right B to north Quest dupe
7 3. Behavior Measurement a. Distances and scalar quantities… we all know two things are far from each other… so what is it? What is distance? How long is that? Also – you can’t use the words “far” or “long” in your definition; Cheat on her. Does the way you move matter? Scalar quantities are defined by magnitude but not by direction
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8 We use the meter as our standard to measure distances. The symbol for distance is “d”. and the unit of meter is “m”. d = 0.2 m
9 B. Displacement and Vector Quantities Now that we understand how to define position, we can talk about change in position; A displacement. The symbol for “change” is the Greek letter “delta” “Δ”. So “Δx” means a change in x or a change in position, depending on how far it is from the starting point, does the direction affect the displacement? Displacement is a vector quantity. It is determined by size and direction.
10 -x +y -y +x Displacement tells you how far you are from where you started, regardless of how you got there.
11 -x +y -y +x For example, if you drive 60 miles from Pennsylvania to New Jersey… x0x0 (in physics, we call the starting point x 0)
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12 -x +y -y +x then 20 miles back to Pennsylvania. x0x0 xfxf (we also call the last position x f)
13 -x +y -y +x You traveled: 80 miles, and the displacement is 40 miles, because we can calculate how far you are from where you started x0x0 xfxf with the following formula: x = X f – X o
14 A distance measure can only have a positive (larger) value because it is impossible to travel a negative distance. Imagine trying to measure a negative length with a tape measure…
15 xfxf xoxo -x +y -y +xxoxo xfxf -x +y -y +x If the displacement is positive or negative, you end up to the right or left of where you started. The transfer is positive. Displacement is negative.
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16 Introduction: Vectors and Scalars Scalars – quantities that have only magnitude (number or value) Vectors – quantities that have both magnitude and direction. scalar?
17 9 How far your end point is from your starting point is called: Distance B Displacement Ca Positive integer Da Negative number
18 10 A car moves 60 m to the right and then 30 m to the left. How far did the car go? +x – x
19 11 You are 60 m to the right and 30 m to the left. What is the magnitude (and direction) of your displacement? +x – x
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20 12 Starting from the origin, a car moves 4 km east and then 7 km west. What is the total distance? A3 km B-3 km C7 km D11 km
21 13 Starting from the origin, a car moves 4 km east and then 7 km west. What is the net displacement from the starting point? A 3 km west B3 km east C 7 km west D11 km east
22 14 You are walking on a road for 400 m. At the end of your run, how far have you gone?
23 15 You are walking on a road for 400 m. At the end of your work, what was your reaction?
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24 c. Time is like distance, everyone knows what time is… but try to define it; What time is now Note that you cannot use the word “time” or a word similar to “time” in your definition.
25 Like distance, time is a fundamental element of nature. It is so basic that it is impossible to define. Everyone knows what time is, but no one can say exactly what it is… However, like distance, time can be measured.
26 Time We use seconds as a standard to measure time. Time symbol “t” is second unit “s”. Click here for “Minute Physics” where t = 10s measures time and distance
27 I. Activity B. Calculating Activity Steps to Solve the Problem: Sketch – Use the sketch with the point diagram list – Given properties, quantities and units, identify the equation for the unknown – Write the same set of equations as the variable you solved for the plug – Data in the answer equation – Solve the units – You are correct Make sure to enter the units
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28 1. Speed Speed is defined as the distance traveled in the time it takes to cover that distance. Velocity = Distance Time s = d t Velocity is not an important aspect of nature, it is the ratio of two existing objects.
29 The unit of speed is found by entering the units of distance and time into the equation speed s = d t meter second m s. We read this unit as “meter per second”.
30 1 A car is moving at a constant speed of 10 m/s. That means car: A accelerates at a speed of 10 meters per second. B decelerates by 10 m per second. C moves with a speed of 10 m/s. D moves at 10 meters per second. C C C C
31 2 A rabbit runs 60 meters in 20 seconds. What is the rabbit’s speed?
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32 3 A car travels at 40 m/s in 4.0 s; How far did the car go?
34 5 An airplane on a runway can travel 500 meters in 10 seconds; What is the average speed of the plane?
35 6 You are running at a constant speed of 20 m/s; How far would you cover in 120 meters?
36 7 You are running at a constant speed of 30 m/s; How long does it take to travel 150 meters?
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37 2. Average speed The speed we have calculated is a constant speed over a short period of time. Another name for this speed is fast. If the journey consists of several parts, each part should be considered separately. In this case, we can calculate the average speed for the entire trip. Determine your average speed by finding the total distance you traveled and dividing it by the total time it took you to cover the distance.
38 In physics we use subscripts to avoid confusion with different distances and time intervals. For example: If an object makes a double trip consisting of three parts, we denote it as d 1 , d 2 , d 3 and the corresponding time intervals t 1 , t 2 , t 3 . Distance and time interval
39 The following steps example will help us find the average speed: Find the total distance d total = d 1 + d 2 + d 3 total time t total = t 1 + t 2 + t 3 Use the average formula. Velocity Average velocity & non-uniform motion s average = d sum t sum
40 Average Speed - Example 1 You ride your bike from school to your friend’s house. It takes you 7 minutes (420 s) to travel 2,500 meters to his house. You spend 10 minutes (600 seconds) there before traveling 3500 meters to your home in 9 minutes (540 seconds). What was your average speed on this trip? To clarify things, we can use tables to track information…
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41 Example 1 – Step 1 You ride your bike from school to your friend’s house. It takes you 7 minutes (420 s) to travel 2,500 meters to his house. You spend 10 minutes (600 seconds) there before traveling 3500 meters to your home in 9 minutes.