Name A Structural Difference Between Triglycerides And Phospholipids

November 3, 2022 0 Comments

Name A Structural Difference Between Triglycerides And Phospholipids – There are different types of phospholipids. In this article we will discuss “What is a phospholipid?” We will answer the question. and explain the different types of phospholipids.

Phospholipids are unique and versatile molecules. They occur naturally and are major components of cell membranes. Organized as a lipid bilayer, phospholipids play an important role in the structure and function of biological membranes. Phospholipids are amphiphilic, meaning they “love” both water and fat, and contain both hydrophilic and lipophilic components.

Name A Structural Difference Between Triglycerides And Phospholipids

Name A Structural Difference Between Triglycerides And Phospholipids

The 2 positions of the glycerol backbone are esterified with fatty acids of different length and saturation (yellow sticks represent phospholipids in a symbolic representation). remaining

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The 3 position is esterified with phosphoric acid, which is esterified with short-chain alcohols of various chemical structures forming the hydrophilic head group of phospholipids (represented by blue balls, see Figure 1.1) systematic nomenclature, for example, phosphatic. acid (PA) 1, 2-diacyl-

, shows a vertical carbon chain with a hydroxyl group to the left of carbon-2 labeled carbon atom C-1.2 at the top of the Fischer projection.

Glycero-3phosphocholine (POPC) and various alternative head groups that vary according to the type of alcohol: phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) with ethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol (PG) with glycerol, phosphatidylserine (PS) with serine and phosphatidylinositol (PI). Image adapted from Dresser S, van Hoogevest P, 2020. Phospholipid Research Center: Current Research on Phospholipids and Drug Delivery, Drugs 12, 1235.1)

Depending on the composition of these alcohols, different types of phospholipids are included, for example, phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylinositol (PI) or phosphatidylserine (PS) 3) in a random distribution. Specific and non-specific status

Biochemical Properties Of Lipids

3 introduces glycerol chirality. Depending on the structure of the polar head group and the pH of the surrounding medium, PE and PC are zwitterionic and have a neutral charge at pH 7, while PG, PI and PS are negatively charged at this pH (see Figure 2).

Figure 2. Chemical structures of phospholipids (blue, glycerol; red, alcohol) and their net charge at physiological pH. Figure adapted from van Hoogevest P, Tiemessen H, Metseller JM, Dresser S, Fahr A, 2021. Use of phospholipids to produce pharmaceutical form line extensions, Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Tech., 2000297.4).

Phospholipids can have two fatty acids esterified and are called diacyl-phospholipids, while phospholipids with one fatty acid are called monoacylphospholipids or lyso-phospholipids.

Name A Structural Difference Between Triglycerides And Phospholipids

In the scientific literature, synthetic phospholipids are abbreviated according to “number of fatty acid positions – type of fatty acid – phosphatidyl – alcohol”. The number of fatty acids can be ‘mono’ or ‘di’, fatty acids are described as,

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, oleoyl or palmitoyl (derived from oleic acid and palmitic acid respectively), ‘phosphatidyl’ describes the backbone of a phospholipid molecule covering glycerol, further esterified with one or two fatty acids and a phosphate group, and finally refers to an alcohol. . described above. The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) uses “glycero-phospho-alcohol” instead. Examples include POPC, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoylphosphatidylcholine (IUPAC: 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-

A large number of different phospholipids exist in nature, as the number, type and position of fatty acids as well as the type of head group can vary modularly. Depending on the origin of natural phospholipids (plant or animal source), the composition of fatty acids varies.

However, one should be aware of the different meanings and uses of the terms “phosphatidylcholine” and “lecithin”. According to the United States Pharmacopeia (USP), lecithin is “a complex mixture of acetone-insoluble phosphatides.

, phospholipids), mainly composed of PC, PE, PI and PA, exist in combination with various amounts of substances such as triglycerides, fatty acids and carbohydrates isolated from crude vegetable oil sources. It contains not less than 50% of acetone insoluble matter. Unfortunately, especially in American literature, lecithin is also used as a synonym for the pure compound phosphatidylcholine. The lipids used are disclosed by describing the phospholipid component in the product as “lecithin”. Therefore, it is recommended to use the term “lecithin” for natural phospholipids when the product contains less than 80% phospholipids by weight and when the product contains 80-100% by weight (

Metabolite Of The Month

, PC, PE); A specific phospholipid must be specified if the product contains more than 90% by weight of that specific phospholipid. 1) Figure 1. Hydrophobic lipids in the fur of aquatic mammals like these river otters protect them from the elements. (Credit: Ken Bosma)

Lipids comprise a diverse group of compounds that are mostly non-polar in nature. This is because they are mostly hydrocarbons that contain non-polar carbon-carbon or carbon-hydrogen bonds. Non-polar molecules are hydrophobic (“fearing water”) or insoluble in water. Lipids perform various functions in the cell. Cells store energy for long-term use as fat. Lipids also provide insulation from the environment for plants and animals (Figure 1). For example, the hydrophobic nature of water repellants in waterfowl and mammals helps keep them dry when they form a protective layer on fur or feathers. Lipids are the building blocks of many hormones and important components of all cell membranes. Lipids include fats, oils, waxes, phospholipids and steroids.

A fat molecule like a triglyceride is a polymer made up of two main components or monomers – glycerol and fatty acids. Glycerol is an organic compound with three carbon atoms, five hydrogen atoms and three hydroxyl (-OH) groups. Fatty acids have a long chain of hydrocarbons with an acidic carboxyl group attached, hence the name “fatty acid”. The number of carbons in fatty acids can range from 4 to 36. The most common contain 12-18 carbons. In a fat molecule, the fatty acid is attached to one of the three oxygen atoms that are covalently bonded to the –OH groups of the glycerol molecule (Figure 2).

Name A Structural Difference Between Triglycerides And Phospholipids

Figure 2. Lipids include fats such as fatty acids and triglycerides, which are composed of glycerol, phospholipids, and steroids.

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Three water molecules are released during the formation of this covalent bond. The three fatty acids in a fat can be the same or different. These fats are also called triglycerides because they contain three fatty acids. Some fatty acids have common names that refer to their origin. For example, palmitic acid, a saturated fatty acid, is derived from palm trees. Arachidic acid is obtained

Fatty acids can be saturated or unsaturated. In a fatty acid chain, if there is a single bond between neighboring carbons in the hydrocarbon chain, the fatty acid is saturated. Saturated fatty acids are saturated with hydrogen; In other words, the number of hydrogen atoms attached to the carbon skeleton is maximum.

Most unsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature and are called oils. If the molecule has one double bond, it is called a monounsaturated fat (eg, olive oil) and if there is more than one double bond, it is called a polyunsaturated fat (eg, canola oil).

Saturated fats are tightly packed and solid at room temperature. Examples of saturated fats are animal fats containing stearic acid and palmitic acid found in meat and butyric acid found in butter. Mammals store fat in specialized cells called adipocytes, where fat globules occupy most of the cell. In plants, fats or oils are stored in seeds and used as an energy source during embryonic development.

Digestion And Absorption Of Lipids

Unsaturated fats or oils are usually of plant origin and contain unsaturated fatty acids. The double bond creates a bend or “kink” that prevents the fatty acids from packing tightly, keeping them liquid at room temperature. Olive oil, corn oil, canola oil, and cod liver oil are examples of unsaturated fats. Unsaturated fats help improve blood cholesterol levels, while saturated fats contribute to the buildup of plaque in the arteries, which increases the risk of heart attacks.

Fat in the human diet can raise levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), or “bad” cholesterol, which can build up plaque in the arteries, leading to heart disease. Many fast food restaurants have recently phased out this practice

Fat content. In the food industry, oils are artificially hydrogenated to make them semi-solid, thereby reducing spoilage and increasing shelf life. Simply put, hydrogen gas is bubbled through oil to make it solid. double bond in this hydrogenation process

Name A Structural Difference Between Triglycerides And Phospholipids

Figure 3. In the hydrogenation process, the orientation around the double bond changes, from cis-fatty to trans-fatty. It changes the chemical properties of the molecule.

Triglyceride — Structure & Function

Essential fatty acids are fatty acids that the human body needs but cannot synthesize. Therefore, it is necessary to add them to the diet. Omega-3 fatty acids belong to this category and are one of two essential fatty acids known to humans (the other being omega-6 fatty acids). It is a type of polyunsaturated fat and is called an omega-3 fatty acid because the third carbon at the end of the fatty acid participates in a double bond.

Salmon, trout and tuna are good sources of omega-3 fatty acids. Omega-3 fatty acids are important for brain function and normal development