Meaning Of Seeing A Snake In Your Path

November 12, 2022 0 Comments

Meaning Of Seeing A Snake In Your Path – To shake, to ring, to strike. This is probably one of the most terrifying sounds in the animal kingdom. But how the rattlesnake produced the strange warning signals is a mystery. Now research shows that rattles developed long after tail wagging.

Rattles evolution has puzzled scientists because, unlike other complex physical features such as eyes and feathers, there are no obvious precursors or intermediate stages.

Meaning Of Seeing A Snake In Your Path

Meaning Of Seeing A Snake In Your Path

One theory is that ancestral snakes flapped their tails to alert predators, and noisy rattles made of hollow, modified keratin scales later evolved as more effective signals to exploit existing behaviors. . This may be why many rattlesnakes wag their tails.

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To test the idea, Pfennig and his colleagues stabbed 56 venomous and non-venomous snakes with a fake rat on a stick and recorded the movement of their defensive tail.

They found that the more closely related the snake was to the rattlesnake, the more similar the speed and duration of its tail strikes.

“This is probably the first physiological response to stress, the first to show defensive tail oscillations, suggesting that snakes are a reliable signal to predators that they are about to attack,” says Pfennig. “As the rattle evolved, it became a more effective signal.”

How the rattlesnake got its noise generator is a more complicated question, Pfennig says. According to him, there are two possibilities. One is that some snakes are genetically predisposed to have extra skin on their tails that make a sound when they flap their tails, so this trait was selected for until rattles evolved.

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Another, more controversial idea is that snakes develop a callus on their tail by shaking their tail against an uneven surface, and if the tendency to callus was influenced by genetic diversity, the structure would “genetically assimilate” and irritate the skin. Hoarseness occurs without having to do this.

Mary Jane West-Eberhard of the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute says the study does not mean that behavioral change always precedes physical evolution, but it does suggest that it is possible and may be quite common.

“This gives us a new awareness of the importance of environmentally sensitive behavior to evolution,” he says.

Meaning Of Seeing A Snake In Your Path

READ MORE: Watch how a rattlesnake clears its attack path. Adapt first and change later. Is evolution out of order?

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Humans perceive snakes as threatening stimuli and have a rapid emotional and behavioral response. However, the actual risk of snake species varies, and despite their uniform legless shape, their shapes vary widely. Other snakes can evoke fear or disgust in humans, or even both emotions at the same time. We designed a three-step selection experiment to identify prototypical snake species that elicit fear or aversion. First, two independent groups of respondents rated 45 images covering most of the snake’s natural diversity and assessed responses to perceived fear (n = 175) or disgust (n = 167). The snakes considered the most fearsome belonged to the viper family (Crotalinae, Viperinae, and Azemiopinae), while the nastiest snakes were from a group of blind snakes called the Typhlopoidea (Xenotyphlopinae, Typhlopinae, and Anomalepidinae). We then identified specific traits that contributed to the perception of fear (large body size, expressive scales in a contrasting pattern, light color) and disgust (thin body, smooth texture, small eyes, dull color). Second, to create stimuli that elicit distinguishable emotional responses, we developed an image set consisting of 40 snakes with fear-inducing properties and 40 snakes with disgust-inducing properties. Another set of respondents (n = 172) rated the set once for perceived fear and second for perceived disgust. The results showed that fear-inducing and recalcitrant snakes mostly fit into each group. Third, 20 species (10 fearful and 10 aversive) were randomly selected from the above set to provide professional illustrations. A new set of subjects (n = 104) classified this snake and found that the snake in the picture evoked the same individual emotions as the snake in the picture. This illustration is included in the study and is freely available as a standardized assessment tool when investigating the role of fear and aversion in human emotional responses to snakes.

Due to a long history of coevolution with snakes, both humans and primates have developed specific neural mechanisms for rapid snake recognition (Isbell, 2006; LoBue and DeLoache, 2008; Öhman et al., 2012; Van Le et al.). , 2013; Baines-Rock, 2017). Among evolutionary unrelated (neutral) stimuli, stomach images are strong distractors (Soares et al., 2009a) and are recognized faster than, for example, flowers and mushrooms (LoBue and Deloache, 2011). ; Soares et al., 2014) no faster than stimulation by contemporary threats such as weapons (Fox et al., 2007; Zsido et al., 2018b). Furthermore, EEG studies show that neural processing of stimuli is prioritized in snakes compared to other animals such as spiders and birds (van Strien et al., 2014).

LoBue and Deloache (2011) provide evidence that prioritization of human attention is a unique morphology of the coiled snake. However, recent research has shown that the pattern of snake scales is also important. The human brain responds much faster to images of snake skin than similarly colored bird feathers (van Strien and Isbell, 2017). In addition, some natural shapes and patterns are perceived and negatively processed faster than sharp edges (Guthrie & Wiener, 1966; Bar & Neta, 2006, 2007), zigzag patterns (Üher, 1991), or other patterns strong generally opposite patterns (Näsänen et al., 2001). Souchet and Aubret (2016) suggested that vipers adopt this phenomenon and use contrasting patterns and sharp-edged shapes as a belief signal to deter enemies and communicate danger. The ability to recognize the danger of snakes based on photographic details of the skin was also observed in Vervet monkeys (Isbell and Etting, 2017), and capuchin monkeys were able to recognize whether a presented snake was dangerous or harmless only according to the pattern of the skin. (Meno et al., 2013). On the other hand, Prokop et al. (2018) showed that aposematic coloration did not play a significant role in eliciting high fear in snakes, as black and white and color images of aposematic and mysticete snakes elicited similar levels of fear .

Meaning Of Seeing A Snake In Your Path

Although typical snake body shapes and color patterns appear to be important neural triggers for rapid snake identification, it remains unclear which typical snake patterns trigger these responses. To date, 3,709 snake species from 25 genera have been described (Uetz et al., 2018). Many of them differ in ecology, size, skin pattern, behavior and other aspects. Similarly, snakes vary in the threats they pose to humans, including venom and its delivery system, snake size, aggressiveness, and likelihood of encountering humans. Deadly venomous species can be found in all types of snakes: terrestrial, arboreal, fossil, and aquatic. However, the greatest risk is associated with two types of snakes (Kasturiratne et al., 2008). First, vipers, or viper-like species, are passive predators that use an ambush strategy for hunting. Their danger is unpredictable, such as the possibility of accidentally stepping on a snake (although some species actively warn potential enemies with display attacks or various acoustic signals such as whistles or rattles). Another type of snake that poses a significant threat to humans is the elapids. Although less venomous than vipers, these active predators are much more mobile. It also relies on auditory or visual cues (eg, typical cobra posture) and high speed to actively avoid unwanted collisions with humans or other enemies (Valenta, 2008). In the continent of human origin, Africa (Grine et al., 2009), venomous snakes (Trape et al., 2001), especially the West African carpet viper (Echis ocellatus) and Gabon, are responsible for most deaths related to snakes. viper.. (Bitis gabonica; Chippax, 1998). Each of these snakes is characterized by certain easily recognizable morphological features. For example, vipers have a triangular-shaped head and sharp, visually distinct scales. Many deadly snakes have a contrasting (apozmatic) skin pigmentation pattern.

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