All Of The Following Are Antioxidants Except

November 20, 2022 0 Comments

All Of The Following Are Antioxidants Except – Cardiologist Clyde W. Yancy, MD, Northwestern Medicine Bluhm Cardiovascular Institute, has thoughts on living a long and healthy life: “One of the keys to achieving healthy aging is maintaining a routine and exercise. self, and following health. – sports nutrition.” The common theme of these recipes? Antioxidants.

Antioxidants block harmful chemicals called free radicals, which can lead to an increase in diabetes, heart disease and cancer. Although antioxidants come in many forms – including enzymes, vitamins and minerals – some of the best sources are fruits, nuts, vegetables and beans.

All Of The Following Are Antioxidants Except

All Of The Following Are Antioxidants Except

“If you want to age well, eat beans,” says Dr. Yancy. Legumes are an excellent source of fiber, magnesium and plant phytochemicals, which help prevent disease. Other foods she recommends include apples, spinach and a handful of nuts each day.

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Read more about what to eat while breastfeeding what to eat while breastfeeding to increase calcium. Limit caffeine. More nutrition tips for breastfeeding moms. arrow_forward Read more Remember from Chapter 1, an atom is made up of a nucleus, which contains neutrons and protons, and electrons, which surround the nucleus. Atoms are most stable when they have an even number of electrons, so they can split their nuclei into two.

An atom or group of atoms with an unpaired electron is called a free radical. Free radicals are unstable and very reactive. They steal electrons from other molecules to stabilize themselves, but in doing so they create new free radicals. This is called electron-grabbing

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And can build a chain, creating new free radicals and destroying important molecules along the way, like falling dominoes that can bring down new ones.

Number 8.12. Free radicals are molecules with unpaired electrons. It can steal electrons from bonded molecules, creating new free radicals and starting chain reactions.

Antioxidants are molecules that can donate electrons to bind and destroy free radicals. Like dominoes that cannot fall, antioxidants can stop the free radical chain in its tracks. By donating electrons, antioxidants themselves become free radicals. However, antioxidants are unique because they do not self-destruct and have a fast mechanism of action.

All Of The Following Are Antioxidants Except

Number 8.13. Antioxidants block free radicals by donating electrons, stopping chain reactions that can create more free radicals.

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Some antioxidants are produced by the body, while others are consumed through food. Examples of dietary antioxidants include vitamins C and E, the mineral selenium, and phytochemicals, such as beta-carotene. We’ll look at vitamins C and E and selenium on this page, and we’ll talk about beta-carotene on the next page.

Free radicals are natural products of metabolic reactions and physical activity, and the presence of free radicals in the body is normal. In fact, free radicals play a role in the normal functioning of the body, with the ability to fight pathogens and send signals from one cell to another. And with enough antioxidants, free radicals can be kept from doing damage.

However, too many free radicals and a lack of protection from antioxidants cause a condition known as oxidative stress. Free radical damage, when left untreated, damages lipids, proteins, RNA and DNA, and can cause disease. Oxidative stress has been implicated as a cause of cancer, heart disease, arthritis, diabetes, stroke, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and eye diseases such as cataracts.

Nutrients and energy from the environment can help or increase the body’s free radical production process. Exposure to UV rays (eg, from the sun), air pollution, cigarette smoke, heavy metals, ionizing radiation, asbestos, and other toxins increase the number of free radicals. in the body. They do this by becoming free radicals or by adding energy to make electrons move between atoms. Greater awareness of natural sources of free radicals can help disease by stimulating the free radical scavenging system and the processes involved in repairing oxidative damage.

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Oxidative stress is linked to the development of cancer, and eating a diet rich in antioxidant-rich foods such as fruits, vegetables, and whole grains can help prevent many of these diseases. It is therefore reasonable for researchers to believe that taking antioxidants as dietary supplements may provide protection against these diseases. However, dozens of studies investigating this hypothesis have shown disappointing results. Not only do these studies show that common antioxidant supplements are not good, some have shown that they can be harmful to health. For example, high levels of beta-carotene increase the risk of cancer in smokers, and high levels of vitamin E increase the risk of prostate cancer in men. Antioxidant supplements can interact with other medications, emphasizing the importance of talking to your doctor before taking any medication.

Researchers aren’t sure why some antioxidant drugs have been shown to be harmful. It may come back to the fact that free radicals are critical to the body, and high levels of antioxidant supplements will disrupt the normal balance of free radicals and cause them to become more bad than good. The benefits of eating foods rich in antioxidants may come not only from antioxidants but also from whole foods, such as fiber and phytochemicals in whole foods, a compound that cannot be replenished in the body. queue. However, you can get high levels of dietary antioxidants by eating a healthy diet.

Let’s take a closer look at some of the most important dietary antioxidants: vitamin E, vitamin C, and selenium.

All Of The Following Are Antioxidants Except

When we talk about vitamin E, we are talking about the same 8 chemicals, of which alpha-tocopherol is the most powerful antioxidant. Because vitamin E is soluble, its antioxidant power is important for lipids, including those in cell membranes and lipoproteins. For example, free radicals can destroy (take electrons from) LDL cholesterol, and the damaged LDL stays in the arteries and forms the fatty plaques typical of atherosclerosis, for example, increasing the risk of heart attacks, strokes, and other problems. . heart disease.

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When alpha-tocopherol interacts with free radicals, it cannot act as an antioxidant unless it is regenerated. Vitamin C helps to restore some of the alpha-tocopherol, but the rest is removed from the body. Therefore, to maintain the level of vitamin E, you eat it as part of your diet.

In addition to its antioxidant function, vitamin E, especially as alpha-tocopherol, plays a role in the immune system, regulating gene expression, and cell signaling. It increases the expansion of blood vessels and prevents the formation of blood clots.

The best food sources of vitamin E are nuts, seeds and vegetable oils, with additional amounts provided by green vegetables and whole grains.

Studies of American diets often find that they provide less than the RDA for vitamin E. However, these studies may underestimate the amount of vitamin E in the diet because they do not fully count the vegetable oil in the diet, as it is a valuable source. . Vitamin E. Vitamin E can be destroyed by high heat, especially when heated frequently, so the oil used for frying is not good.

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Vitamin E deficiency is very common with deficiency symptoms in healthy people. It usually occurs in people with diseases that affect digestion and absorption of fat. Symptoms of vitamin E deficiency include nerve and muscle damage, vision problems, and a weakened immune system.

Research has found no problem with consuming vitamin E in food. The UL for vitamin E is set at 1,000 mg for adults, which is above the RDA of 15 mg and above what can be obtained from food. These funds can be used as supplements, however. As mentioned, supplements high in vitamin E have been found to increase the risk of prostate cancer in men. Other studies have found that high levels of vitamin E supplements are associated with increased the risk of stroke, stroke and death.

Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid, is a water-insoluble vitamin that is essential for nutrition. Interestingly, most mammals can make vitamin C easily and do not need it from their diet. Vitamin C’s ability to donate electrons easily makes it a powerful antioxidant. It is soluble in water, it works inside and outside the cell to protect the water molecules. Vitamin C plays an important role in regenerating vitamin E after acting as an antioxidant, allowing it to be recycled and used again.

All Of The Following Are Antioxidants Except

Number 8.15. After vitamin E donates an electron to destroy free radicals, it can be regenerated by an electron from vitamin C. Vitamin C is then regenerated by antioxidant enzymes.

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In addition to its role as an antioxidant, vitamin C is a

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